Chả Hấp Chay | Steamed Tofu Pâté


Only in recent years have vegetarianism and its derivative regimens started to gain greater recognition here in France, a country whose culinary identity is inextricably bound to dishes that prominently feature meats and offal of all varieties. When I initially arrived here, most of the French people I met could not fathom the idea of omitting meat or dairy from their diet, and they considered meals served without animal protein as unsatiatingly incomplete. Friends visiting from the US who had dietary restrictions would have difficulty finding restaurants catering to their needs. But over the last few years, I‘ve noticed that meat-free as well as gluten-free dining options have become increasingly more common in Paris. I even met a French vegan in the master’s program that I just recently completed. I was astonished to learn that he had been vegan for the last few years, because I didn’t think that that eating lifestyle would ever be a thing in a country where cheese reigns supreme.

Compressed Tofu

This releatively new wave of alternative eating options likely grew in part from expats courageous enough to launch businesses to fill such culinary gaps in Paris. Increased global digital social connections could have also played a role in propagating interest in meat-free diets. Though meat consumption in France has been steadily declining for the last 20+ years, this decrease parallels the significant rise in meat prices. Nonetheless, I still haven’t met any French converts completely eschewing meat, aside from my former classmate.

Dried mushrooms
Beanthread noodles

Given the French’s penchant for meat-based dishes, tofu likely figures close to the bottom of their list of ingredients for dinner ideas. Folks who don’t like tofu often tell me that it lacks taste and texture. As an ardent tofu enthusiast who always has blocks of it in the fridge, I’m always baffled when I hear that. Of course it doesn’t have any flavor if it’s not seasoned and prepared properly. I doubt a hunk of steak would taste like anything without seasoning and sauces to adorn it.

Ingredient Prep
Steamed tofu pâté

Chả hấp chay, which is a vegetarian version of a Vietnamese steamed egg meatloaf, has become a recent favorite of mine. The meat-based version that I often make is a mix of ground pork and eggs, and I either steam or bake the meatloaf in the oven. Even without meat though, this steamed tofu pâté does not compromise on flavor. The fermented bean curd gives the dish that satisfying umami gusto that meat dishes impart. The glaze topping of tapioca flour and annatto seed oil adds a semi-gelatinous layer that mimics an egg in texture and color. Served with steamed rice and a side of veggies, such as stir-fried water spinach, this makes for a satiating meal that is ideal for meatless Mondays.

Chả Hấp Chay | Steamed Tofu Pâté

Chả Hấp Chay (steamed tofu pâté) is a vegetarian take on the classic Vietnamese chả trứng hấp, which is a steamed egg meatloaf with ground pork. This meatless version is composed of tofu, onions, wood ear mushrooms, beanthread noodles, and fermented tofu, which imparts a satifying umami flavor. The steamed tofu dish is vegetarian and vegan friendly and best enjoyed with a side of steamed white rice and sautéed greens.
Servings 2
Prep Time 15 minutes
Cook Time 30 minutes


  • 250 g firm tofu
  • ½ handful dried beanthread noodles
  • ½ tbsp dried woodear mushrooms
  • ½ carrot, julienned
  • 1 small shallot, finely diced
  • 1 tsp corn starch
  • ½ tbsp fermented bean curd
  • ¼ tsp salt (+/- to taste)
  • ¼ tsp sugar
  • ¼ tsp ground black pepper
  • ½ tbsp tapioca flour
  • ½ tbsp annatto seed oil


  • In separate bowls, soak the beanthread noodles and woodear mushrooms in warm water. Once softened, drain the mushrooms and noodles and roughly chop them.
  • Thoroughly drain the tofu from its liquid and place into a bowl. With a spoon, mash the tofu until it takes on a smooth, paste-like texture. Then, place the tofu in a cheesecloth and squeeze out any excess liquid.
  • Return the tofu to a bowl and combine with the diced shallots, carrots, beanthread noodles, fermented bean curd, corn starch, salt, sugar, and pepper. Mix until it becomes a homogenous mixture, and add any additional salt if necessary. Transfer the mixture into a cocotte dish, spreading it evenly and pressing firmly into the dish. Steam for 20 minutes.
  • While it is steaming, prepare the glaze topping by mixing 1 tablespoon of water with the tapioca flour and annatto seed oil. After 20 minutes of steaming, pour the glaze mixture evenly over the surface and continue steaming for another 6-7 minutes. Once the tofu pâté cools, the glaze topping will set.


I usually serve this dish with steamed white rice and dip each bite in a mixture of fish sauce + a squeeze of lime juice + chopped bird’s eye chilis. Those who prefer a purely vegetarian or vegan version can dip it in soy sauce mixed with chili peppers instead of fish sauce.
Course: Main Course, Side Dish
Cuisine: Vietnamese
Keyword: Steamed, Tofu, Vegetarian

Thanks for reading,

Join the Conversation

  1. This sounds so lovely. Veganism is growing in the UK, too, albeit very slowly. Much like France, I think the people here, especially northern England consider vegetarians as an inconvenience. I’m originally from Vancouver, and I was a bit shocked when I moved here, that literally every meal has meat!

    1. Thank you Debs!

      Yeah, it’s crazy how much meat is consumed here in France. I came from the US where we eat all sorts of crap, but I found that alternative diets were never difficult to sustain there. Whereas here, going meat-free is a growing movement, but it’s still very much a rare phenomenon that few French people ascribe to.

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